Besides the progress that has been made in the development of internal combustion engines (ICE) as well as vehicle design and technology in general, legislation is the most important driver for the development of automotive catalysts and catalytic system layouts.
All over the world, emission limits for most applications of internal combustion engines are in place. Legislation exists for the following types of engines and vehicle types. New legislative steps are also being prepared for many of them on a regular basis:
- Gasoline and Diesel powered passenger cars and light duty vehicles (LDV)
- Heavy-duty engines for trucks and buses (HDD)
- Propulsion engines for recreational craft
- Combustion heaters for motor vehicles and their trailers
- Engines for "Non-Road Mobile Machinery" (NRMM) including.
Worldwide legislation covers both, regulated pollutants and the emission of greenhouse gases (especially CO2).
Another set of legislation affecting the catalyst business is related to the fuel quality. It contains e. g.:
- Directives on the quality of fuels used in different engines in the market
- Limits of the sulfur content
- Provisions for blending gasoline with (bio)ethanol
- Specifications for Fatty Acid Methyl Esters, commonly known as biodiesel.
Demonstrating changes to European diesel emission legislation over two decades
CO, HC, NOx for Light Duty Diesel (LDD)
EU1 and EU2 adjusted to NEDC wdg 40s idling (ACEA correlation factors)