Heavy Duty Diesel
NOx and Particulate Number (PN) limits continue to decrease as emission regulations become more stringent while, in parallel, fuel efficiency improvements and subsequent CO2 reductions are mandated by regional green-house gas (GHG) regulations across the globe.
California Air Resources Board (ARB) plans up to a 90% reduction in currently allowed NOx emissions from HDD sources by 2027 concurrent with the federally mandated HDD GHG Phase 2 going fully into effect. ARB targets of 0,02 g NOx /bhp-hr can only be met with noticeable advances in engine thermal management and exhaust system design to achieve the high NOx reduction efficiency required, especially under the most challenging conditions experienced during cold start and low load cycle operation. Leading exhaust catalyst technologies under development and evaluation include light-off SCR, low N2O SCR, advanced DOC and cDPF technologies and highly selective ammonia oxidation catalysts.
Europe most probably will adopt such U.S. regulations for an introduction of EURO VII, which is not fixed yet in terms of limits and timing. More stringent OBD requirements and a better reflection of real driving emissions are subject to the EURO VI-d implementation in 2019.
Umicore has a full portfolio of advanced catalyst technologies along with a knowledgeable and experienced team of engineers and chemists to work side by side with our customers to design and demonstrate an efficient engineering solution. Umicore further provides customer support through durability aging, testing and/or simulation with our on-site testing and modeling resources.
The development focus to meet the performance challenges is two-folded:
- The first approach will improve the thermal conditions specifically for the components of the SCR sub-system with the urea injection device. This includes varying the positions of functional units in the exhaust line and optimizing the geometrical arrangement, reducing heat capacity, improving insulation and applying external energy for optimal heat-up and urea decomposition.
- The second approach is to improve individual functions to better cope with lower temperatures, which addresses requirements especially to the SCR catalyst itself and the urea injection unit.
Other significant HDD regulations are being introduced in the developing countries. China and India follow European standards. China introduces CN V in 2016/17 and from 2020 on CN VI will be mandatory. India skips Bharat V and goes directly from Bharat IV to Bharat VI in 2020. Such legislative approaches require the widespread availability of low sulfur fuel (10 ppm S).
Other regulatory developments involve the next round of tightening for the European Nonroad mobile machinery (Stage V) for 2019 and the implementation of Euro VI levels in Brazil beyond 2020.
Such global requirements and different engine maker philosophies require Umicore to having a full portfolio on SCR catalyst technologies: Fe-, Cu- and V-SCR.
Traditional systems used today